Skin problems, or skin diseases, are common in children, but they are often mild. A close examination of the primary skin lesions (papules, vesicles, and nodules) often allows a treating physician, pediatrician or dermatologist to make a diagnosis.
Doctors call the skin problem “skin disease.” The “rash” corresponds to the appearance of other skin lesions such as: pimples, spots, etc. There are different types of skin diseases depending on the appearance of the skin lesions: pink or rosacea rashes, blisters, crusts …
Skin diseases in children?
The skin is a complex organ that first functions as a physiological barrier: in infants and newborns, the surface layer of skin (“the epidermis”) is thinner, and the skin is more permeable. The skin also has a heat-regulating function. Finally, you should know that the skin is colonized from birth by many bacteria that are involved in the defense of the skin.
There are different types of skin diseases secondary to viral or bacterial infections, allergic or immune diseases, or unknown causes.
The diagnosis is often made based on the circumstances of the appearance and the appearance of the skin lesions (the type of “rash” on the skin).
What are the signs of skin problems in children?
- Different types of skin lesions can appear and each lesion can correspond to a specific skin problem in children. This is what makes their analysis interesting.
- Redness of the skin that clears when touching the finger.
- A pimple (or “papule”) is a small stretch of skin that is hard and has no serum.
- The vesicle is a height containing a small transparent liquid that is less than 5 mm in diameter.
- A “bubble” is a height containing a transparent liquid over 5 mm in diameter.
- A “pimple” is the height of the skin that contains a cloudy liquid.
- The “crust” is a fibrous aggregate that contains serum and blood drying products.
- A “ganglion” is a small lesion that is round, hard and palpable.
- “Sores” appear due to severe pressure on the skin.
- “Keratosis” is the thickening of the superficial stratum corneum of the skin (“cutaneous hyperkeratosis”).
- A “lint” is a small strip of “corneal” skin.
- “Purpura” is a group of small red or purple spots that do not fade when pressed.
What are the causes of skin diseases in children?
Redness, itching, and rashes (pimples) have many causes:
- Dry skin with slight redness without itching or fever.
- Skin irritation such as diaper rash or sunburn.
- Insect bites: mosquitoes, bedbugs, lice, fleas, itching, scabies.
- Some infectious diseases: chickenpox, measles, rubella, pink rash (sudden rash), scarlet fever, and contagious mollusks.
- Some fungi: They cause skin fold rashes and itching in the genital areas.
- Certain cases of infection with intestinal parasites: Itching in the anal area due to small worms (pinworms).
- Allergy to some types of food: red spots appear after the child eats foods such as strawberries, fish and shellfish.
- Allergy to pollen, some metals (especially nickel, found in some jewelry and trouser buttons), animal hair, some toiletries, and latex toys.
- Medication allergy: Some medicines have unwanted effects that lead to rashes.
- Atopic eczema.
- Immune diseases: Kawasaki syndrome, thrombocytopenic purpura.
When should we be concerned about these skin diseases?
It is imperative to pay close attention to the health of your baby’s skin, and this is done through regular monitoring. If you notice any problem or symptom from the previous symptoms, you must consult your doctor immediately.
It is also possible to take a picture of your child’s rash as soon as it appears, and to continue the imaging process, this will be an additional component to facilitate the doctor’s diagnosis or to monitor the progress of the disease.
The first thing to do if pimples or red spots suddenly appear is not to worry. On the other hand, a medical examination is systematically necessary in the event of an unexplained rash that does not pass after about 10 days or in the following cases:
- If the child has a fever.
- If he no longer eats.
- If he suffers from severe itching.
- If it shows marks on his skin.
- If the lesion is growing, bleeding, or crusting.
Children’s cosmetics: less is better
Dr. Anne-Marie Calza insists that the child, unless there is a specific skin problem, does not need a cream on the body ”, choose simplicity and use: water and soap or limestone ointment.
Likewise for the body: In the shower, do not use scented or effervescent soaps, which contain hypoallergenic preservatives and are not suitable for children. Where a dermatologist recommends, “Choose a medicated soap, which contains less chemicals and preservatives,” and adds that “this advice is also valid for adults!”
Perfumes, makeup and tattoos in black ink … also harm the skin of young children. Finally, the dermatologist insists on clarifying the danger that essential oils pose: “They are too concentrated and sometimes irritating, toxic or even hormonal disruptions. So it is completely forbidden for children under 3 years old. ‘
How is dermatitis in children diagnosed?
The diagnosis of a skin problem in children is based on a rigorous clinical approach by the doctor, pediatrician or dermatologist.
The doctor will ask the parents about the history of allergic disease in the family (hereditary skin disease) and the circumstances of the emergence of the skin problem, for example: (after exposure to the sun, after eating a meal, an insect bite, taking medication, etc.). He will ask if the skin problems are accompanied by itching.
A clinical examination will be performed on a completely abstract child without diapers, which will allow to analyze the type of lesion and its exact location (generalized, predominant in the extremities, in folds or in layer contact.